Robert Dudley

The IR image reveals carefully drawn lines beneath Dudley’s face, which look as though they were traced from a template. It also shows that every detail of his outfit was carefully planned out before painting.

The blue paint of Dudley’s cloak, for example, was painted around the shape of his garter chain, rather than the chain being added over the blue layer. This detail suggests that the painter was using his materials with economy and did not want to waste the expensive ultramarine blue pigment.